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Equipamentos Hidráulicos

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It is completely a personal choice but to a great extent, it is impacted by the culture of a society. For example, Japanese people are more bent towards saving compared to the US. Another important factor that determines the utility of capital is the interest rate or returns available to their funds.

optimum credit term exists when

The net present value method has one major drawback that it is not easy to rank projects on the basis of this method particularly when the costs of the projects differ significantly. To evaluate such projects, the profitability index method is most suitable. The other advantages and disadvantages of this method are the same as those of net present value method. It is also a time -adjusted method of evaluating the investment proposals. Profitability index also called as Benefit-Cost Ratio (B/C) or ‘Desirability factor’ is the relationship between present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows. The results of NPV method and IRR method may differ when the projects under evaluation differ in their size, life and timings of cash flows.

Meaning of Working Capital Management

It does not take into consideration the cash flows which are more important than the accounting profits. Sometimes, Pay -back Reciprocal method is employed to estimate the internal rate of return generated by a project. Where the annual cash inflows are unequal, the pay­back period can be found by adding up the cash inflows until the total is equal to the initial cash outlay of project or original cost of the asset.

But in case the present value of inflows is less than the present value of cash outflows, the proposal should be rejected. Calculate the net present value of each project by subtracting the present value of cash inflows from the present value of cash outflows for each project. The project under consideration has a long life which must be at least twice the pay-back period. It may be difficult to determine the minimum acceptable pay-back period, it is usually, a subjective decision. Divide the initial outlay of the project by the annual cash inflow, where the project generates constant annual cash inflows.

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Pay-back period method does not measure the true profitability of the project as the period considered under this method is limited to a short period only and not the full life of the asset. Finally, the minimum rate of return is to be set against which the performance of the long-term project can be evaluated. The importance of capital budgeting can be well understood from the fact that an unsound investment decision may prove to be fatal to the very existence of the concern. Capital rationing is normally applied to situations where the supply of funds to the firm is limited in some way.

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  • Due to debt capital the value of levered firm is higher by ` 10,000.
  • It is costly for the firms whose resources are limited and tied up in slow moving inventories.
  • If return on investment on total capital employed (i.e., shareholders’ fund plus long-term debt) exceeds the interest rate, the shareholders get a higher return.
  • If the existing equity shareholders do not like to dilute the control, they may prefer debt capital to equity capital, as former has no voting rights.
  • Since time immemorial, the primary objective of financial management has been held to be profit-maximisation.

The period of credit allowed by creditors for credit purchase of raw materials. One very popular model explicitly relating the market value of the firm to dividend policy is developed by Myron Gordon. Difference between the two is in respect of date of payment and their effect is the same. Both result in lessening of surplus and in addition to the liability of the firm. The only difference between bond and scrip dividends is that the former carries longer maturity date than the latter. Issue of bonus shares after any public/rights issue is subject to the conditions that no bonus issue shall be made which will dilute the value or rights of the holders of debenture, convertible fully or partly.

. Modigliani and Millar Hypothesis with No Taxes : Irrelevance of Capital Structure

The discount rate should be either the actual rate of interest in the market on long-term loans or it should reflect the opportunity cost of capital of the investor. Thus, an increase in the use of apparently cheaper debt funds is offset exactly by the corresponding increase in the equity- capitalisation rate. So, the weighted work in progress meaning average Cost of Capital Kwand Kdremain unchanged for all degrees of leverage. Needless to mention here that, as the firm increases its degree of leverage, it becomes more risky proposition and investors are to make some sacrifice by having a low P/E ratio. Availability of funds is greatly influenced by the size of company.

When a company wants to maintain an established dividend record without paying out cash immediately, the management may take recourse to scrip dividend. Companies defaulting in payment to any public financial institution will have to produce a no objection letter from it before issuing bonus shares. The company should make a further application for an issue of bonus shares only after 24 months have elapsed from the date of sanction by the Government of an earlier bonus issue by the Company. This is particularly true if the firm’s sales were affected through credit and entire sale proceeds are tied in receivables. When the firm’s access to capital market is difficult or when availability of funds is costlier.

Determinants of Dividend Policy

Financing decision goes in favour of employing funds having fixed financial charges because it can be used as a lever. Financial leverage results from the existence of fixed financial charges in the firm’s income stream. With the use of fixed financial charges, a firm can magnify the effect of change in EBIT on change in EPS. Hence financial leverage may be defined as the firm’s ability to use fixed financial charges to magnify the effects of changes in EBIT on its EPS. The traditional approach explains that up to a certain point, debt-equity mix will cause the market value of the firm to rise and the cost of capital to decline.

  • Perpetual inventory values provide a stable and reliable basis for preparing financial statements a better utilization.
  • The advantage of this method is that a definite amount will be available while in the case of investment of funds in securities then exact amount may not be available on account of fall in the value of securities.
  • All the techniques of capital budgeting presume that various investment proposals under consideration are mutually exclusive which may not practically be true in some particular circumstances.
  • A firm should borrow money to the point where the tax benefit from debt is equal to the cost of the increased probability of financial distress.
  • This method also like pay-back period method ignores the time value of money as the profits earned at different points of time are given equal weight by averaging the profits.

But the determination of market value involves some difficulties for which the measurement of cost of capital becomes very difficult. Ezra Solomon defines“Cost of capital is the minimum required rate of earnings or cut­off rate of capital expenditure”. Mr. Balu has borrowed a loan of Rs. 5,00,000 to construct his house which repayable in 12 equal annual instalments the first being paid at the end of first year. The rate of interest chargeable on this loan is (a 4% p.a. compounded. How much of equal annual installments payable to amortize the said loan. The time period between two successive payments is called ‘payment period or ‘rent period. The word ‘annuity’ is broader in sense, which includes payments which can be annual, semiannual, quarterly or any other fixed length of time.

No doubt, the primary step in cash management is to estimate the requirement of Cash. The optimum level of cash should always be maintained, i.e., the appro­priate level of cash balances should be determined. A cash budget should be prepared for ascertaining the cash surplus or deficit for each period of planning through the inflows and outflows of cash. The EOQ model assumed that cash flows are predictable while the Control-Limit Model assumes that they are random. But, in practice, cash flows are neither completely predictable nor stochastic.

Interest payments on the debt stay fixed, leaving more income to be distributed over more shares. Interest payments on the debt stay fixed, leaving less income to be distributed over more shares. Interest payments on the debt stay fixed, leaving more income to be distributed over less shares. Interest payments on the debt stay fixed, leaving less income to be distributed over less shares. The rate of return on operating assets is unaffected by leverage. The cost of preferred stock for a firm with equal parts debt and common stock in its capital structure.

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